Regarding this question: How do sugar pills work according to homeopaths?

I saw a link today that did not actually say something new about this question, but sort-of drives the point home of the accepted answer.
Should I

  • Add an answer? Feels wrong, as it is not a new answer.
  • Edit the question? Also feels wrong: it's not part of the question, its part of the answer
  • Add a comment to the question? Still feels wrong, as it is not actually a comment on the question
  • Edit the accepted answer? This might be the best option, but I don't really know what the etiquette is for adding stuff to an answer. Its not really necessary, although in my perseption it does make the answer a little better
  • Add a comment to the accepted answer. I have the feeling comments aren't that "important", so it might be overlooked there. But otoh, it feels less intruding // better etiquette...
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Should you:

  • Add an answer?
    I personally wouldn't. On Stack Overflow, where activity is high, I often find that as I submit my answer, that somebody else was saying the exact same thing. If I find that my answer adds nothing new to the table, I usually delete my answer and upvote the original.

  • Edit the question?
    This would be weird. It would seem like the guy asking the question actually had the best answer all along, and just accepted whatever agreed with that? I don't know the link you're referring to, but it seems like it's more of an answer than part of the question...?

  • Add a comment to the question?
    This is more reasonable, and there are certainly cases where I've done something similar to this. If I don't want to create an answer posting only a link, and I don't have the opportunity to take the time to write something myself, I'll probably just post a comment and say "here, look at this."

  • Edit the accepted answer?
    Tricky! Editing is always rather delicate, but I personally endorse it, and I hope we can create a culture where it's completely accepted. After all, if it adds to the answer, the guy writing it is likely to get more upvotes for it, hey? This also depends on the nature of the link, I'd say. If it's very close to what the author of the answer is saying, you could perhaps edit it in as a source for something, and leave a comment saying you did that? But if it's rather just an easier way of explaining what the current answer explains, I think that might be changing the answer too much, and I'd turn to the next point in this list:

  • Add a comment to the accepted answer.
    Yes, I think this is often reasonable! Given that it can't be accommodated in the above scenario, of just adding sources, I think a comment to the answer is the perfect way to go about. I hear what you're saying about them not being that "important", but isn't that also the case for the link? You're saying it adds nothing new, but rather drives the point home.

    Upvote the answer, and leave a comment saying "My thoughts exactly, here's another way of expressing that same thing that I think conveys this idea in a most compelling manner." To me, that's exactly what a comment is for. The author will be notified, and may choose to include it in his text. He may be more inclined to do so if you comment something like that - "you may want to complete your answer with this link" - otherwise he might feel he's stealing it from you.

    If it's truly valuable, people will upvote that comment. A comment with some 4-5 upvotes, I think, are quite noticable, and they at least always get my attention when I'm reading an answer.

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As you said, there are a few ways to act.

The one thing to remember, before we even debate what's the proper course of action, is to remember Stack Exchange sites are meant to be used:

It means that Stack Overflow is not just a historical record of questions and answers. It’s a lot more than that: it’s actually a community-edited wiki of narrow, “long-tail” questions — questions that aren’t quite important enough to deserve a page on Wikipedia, but which come up over and over again.

As such, having the highest quality answer possible is ideal.

With that in mind, how should you act?

I think there at least three defensible actions, depending on the situation:

  • Adding a new answer.
  • Editing the accepted answer.
  • Adding a comment to the accepted answer.

Writing a new answer is the best choice of them all, provided you feel you can improve on the question. Even if the question is a few days old, and even if it's your own question, if you feel you can write a better answer than the accepted answer, do so. It doesn't matter if there is an accepted answer with several upvotes. We strives for the highest quality content possible. Better answers are conductive to that goal. So, if you feel that you can improve the accepted answer in various ways, do that.

With that said, if all that you can contribute to the answer is to add a source backing up a claim, that's different. Then, the choice becomes slightly tricker but I think David answered that beautifully (again):

Editing is always rather delicate, but I personally endorse it, and I hope we can create a culture where it's completely accepted. After all, if it adds to the answer, the guy writing it is likely to get more upvotes for it, hey?

If you can add a source to someone's claim, I would say to definitively go for it. Altering someone's words is always a delicate situation, but that's not what you're doing here; you're just adding a source. You're inarguably improve his or her answer.

We should cultivate a culture where this kind of action is considered acceptable. If someone has a problem with that, I would say this site may not be for them:

Like Wikipedia, this site is collaboratively edited, and all edits are tracked. If you are not comfortable with the idea of your questions and answers being edited by other trusted users, this may not be the site for you.

In this case, the user is Fabian. You're highly unlikely to face such problems.

Finally, if you're not sure what to do, leaving a comment on the accepted answer is the safe answer at all times. Comments on Stack Exchange are second-class citizen, though. Ideally, you want to improve the answer over leaving a comment.

So, in summary:

  • Add a new answer if you can make meaningful additions.
  • Edit the answer if it's to add a source (or a better source).
  • If you're not sure, or feeling lazy that day, add a comment.
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